How the Voyager Golden Record Was Made

Fascinating article on The New Yorker about how the Voyager Golden Record was made: The Voyagers’ scientific mission will end when their plutonium-238 thermoelectric power generators fail, around the year 2030. After that, the two craft will drift endl…

Fascinating article on The New Yorker about how the Voyager Golden Record was made: The Voyagers’ scientific mission will end when their plutonium-238 thermoelectric power generators fail, around the year 2030. After that, the two craft will drift endlessly among the stars of our galaxy — unless someone or something encounters them someday. With this prospect in mind, each was fitted with a copy of what has come to be called the Golden Record. Etched in copper, plated with gold, and sealed in aluminum cases, the records are expected to remain intelligible for more than a billion years, making them the longest-lasting objects ever crafted by human hands. We don’t know enough about extraterrestrial life, if it even exists, to state with any confidence whether the records will ever be found. They were a gift, proffered without hope of return. I became friends with Carl Sagan, the astronomer who oversaw the creation of the Golden Record, in 1972. He’d sometimes stop by my place in New York, a high-ceilinged West Side apartment perched up amid Norway maples like a tree house, and we’d listen to records. Lots of great music was being released in those days, and there was something fascinating about LP technology itself. A diamond danced along the undulations of a groove, vibrating an attached crystal, which generated a flow of electricity that was amplified and sent to the speakers. At no point in this process was it possible to say with assurance just how much information the record contained or how accurately a given stereo had translated it. The open-endedness of the medium seemed akin to the process of scientific exploration: there was always more to learn.

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Astrophysicist Believes Technologically-Advanced Species Extinguish Themselves

Why haven’t we heard from intelligent life elsewhere in the universe? wisebabo writes:
In the Science Daily article “Where is everybody? The Implications of Cosmic Silence,” the retired astrophysicist Daniel Whitmire explains that using the principle o…

Why haven’t we heard from intelligent life elsewhere in the universe? wisebabo writes:
In the Science Daily article “Where is everybody? The Implications of Cosmic Silence,” the retired astrophysicist Daniel Whitmire explains that using the principle of mediocracy (a statistical notion that says, in the absence of more data, that your one data point is likely to be “average”), that not only are we the first intelligent life on earth but that we will likely be the only (and thus the last) intelligent life on this planet… Unfortunately that isn’t the worst of it.

Coupled with the “Great Silence”, it implies that the reason we haven’t heard from anyone is that intelligent life, when it happens anywhere else in the universe, doesn’t last and when it does it flames out quickly and takes the biosphere with it (preventing any other intelligent life from reappearing. Sorry dolphins!). While this is depressing in a very deep sense both cosmically (no Star Trek/Wars/Valerian universes filled with alien civilizations) and locally (we’re going to wipe ourselves out, and soon) it is perhaps understandable given our current progress towards reproducing the conditions of the greatest extinction event in earth’s history.
That last link (reprinting a New York Times opinion piece) cites the “Great Dying” of 90% of all land-based life in 252 million B.C., which is believed to have been triggered by “gigantic emissions of carbon dioxide from volcanoes that erupted across a vast swath of Siberia.” But if we’re not headed to the same inexorable doom, that raises an inevitable follow-up question.
If intelligence-driven extinction doesn’t explain this great cosmic silence, then what does? Why hasn’t our species heard from other intelligent civilizations elsewhere in the universe?

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Startup To Put Cellphone Tower on the Moon

An astronaut wandering the moon next year could use a smartphone to call home. If everything goes according to a plan, that is. A German startup is preparing to set up the first telecommunication infrastructure on the lunar surface. From a report: The …

An astronaut wandering the moon next year could use a smartphone to call home. If everything goes according to a plan, that is. A German startup is preparing to set up the first telecommunication infrastructure on the lunar surface. From a report: The German company Part Time Scientists, which originally competed for the Google Lunar X Prize race to the moon, plans to send a lander with a rover in late 2018 to visit the landing site of Apollo 17. (Launched in 1972, this was NASA’s final Apollo mission to the moon.) Instead of using a complex dedicated telecommunication system to relay data from the rover to the Earth, the company will rely on LTE technology — the same system used on Earth for mobile phone communications. “We are cooperating with Vodafone in order to provide LTE base stations on the moon,” Karsten Becker, who heads embedded electronics development and integration for the startup, told Space.com. “What we are aiming to do is to provide commercial service to bring goods to the moon and also to provide services on the surface of the moon,” Becker added.

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Astronomers Detect Four Earth-Sized Planets Orbiting The Nearest Sun-Like Star

Tim Stephens reports via The University of California in Santa Cruz: A new study by an international team of astronomers reveals that four Earth-sized planets orbit the nearest sun-like star, tau Ceti, which is about 12 light years away and visible to …

Tim Stephens reports via The University of California in Santa Cruz: A new study by an international team of astronomers reveals that four Earth-sized planets orbit the nearest sun-like star, tau Ceti, which is about 12 light years away and visible to the naked eye. These planets have masses as low as 1.7 Earth mass, making them among the smallest planets ever detected around nearby sun-like stars. Two of them are super-Earths located in the habitable zone of the star, meaning they could support liquid surface water. The planets were detected by observing the wobbles in the movement of tau Ceti. This required techniques sensitive enough to detect variations in the movement of the star as small as 30 centimeters per second. The outer two planets around tau Ceti are likely to be candidate habitable worlds, although a massive debris disc around the star probably reduces their habitability due to intensive bombardment by asteroids and comets.

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

Can Pirmordial Black Holes Alone Account For Dark Matter?

thomst writes: Slashdot stories have reported extensively on the LIGO experiments’ initial detection of gravity waves emanating from collisions of primordial black holes, beginning, on February 11, 2016, with the first (and most widely-reported) such d…

thomst writes: Slashdot stories have reported extensively on the LIGO experiments’ initial detection of gravity waves emanating from collisions of primordial black holes, beginning, on February 11, 2016, with the first (and most widely-reported) such detection. Other Slashdot articles have chronicled the second LIGO detection event and the third one. There’s even been a Slashdot report on the Synthetic Universe supercomputer model that provided support for the conclusion that the first detection event was, indeed, of a collision between two primordial black holes, rather than the more familiar stellar remnant kind that result from more recent supernovae of large-mass stars.

What interests me is the possibility that black holes of all kinds — and particularly primordial black holes — are so commonplace that they may be all that’s required to explain the effects of “dark matter.” Dark matter, which, according to current models, makes up some 26% of the mass of our Universe, has been firmly established as real, both by calculation of the gravity necessary to hold spiral galaxies like our own together, and by direct observation of gravitational lensing effects produced by the “empty” space between recently-collided galaxies. There’s no question that it exists. What is unknown, at this point, is what exactly it consists of.

The leading candidate has, for decades, been something called WMPs (Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles), a theoretical notion that there are atomic-scale particles that interact with “normal” baryonic matter only via gravity. The problem with WIMPs is that, thus far, not a single one has been detected, despite years of searching for evidence that they exist via multiple, multi-billion-dollar detectors.

With the recent publication of a study of black hole populations in our galaxy (article paywalled, more layman-friendly press release at Phys.org) that indicates there may be as many as 100 million stellar-remnant-type black holes in the Milky Way alone, the question arises, “Is the number of primordial and stellar-remnant black holes in our Universe sufficient to account for the calculated mass of dark matter, without having to invoke WIMPs at all?”

I don’t personally have the mathematical knowledge to even begin to answer that question, but I’m curious to find out what the professional cosmologists here think of the idea.

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

Can Primordial Black Holes Alone Account For Dark Matter?

thomst writes: Slashdot stories have reported extensively on the LIGO experiments’ initial detection of gravity waves emanating from collisions of primordial black holes, beginning, on February 11, 2016, with the first (and most widely-reported) such d…

thomst writes: Slashdot stories have reported extensively on the LIGO experiments’ initial detection of gravity waves emanating from collisions of primordial black holes, beginning, on February 11, 2016, with the first (and most widely-reported) such detection. Other Slashdot articles have chronicled the second LIGO detection event and the third one. There’s even been a Slashdot report on the Synthetic Universe supercomputer model that provided support for the conclusion that the first detection event was, indeed, of a collision between two primordial black holes, rather than the more familiar stellar remnant kind that result from more recent supernovae of large-mass stars.

What interests me is the possibility that black holes of all kinds — and particularly primordial black holes — are so commonplace that they may be all that’s required to explain the effects of “dark matter.” Dark matter, which, according to current models, makes up some 26% of the mass of our Universe, has been firmly established as real, both by calculation of the gravity necessary to hold spiral galaxies like our own together, and by direct observation of gravitational lensing effects produced by the “empty” space between recently-collided galaxies. There’s no question that it exists. What is unknown, at this point, is what exactly it consists of.

The leading candidate has, for decades, been something called WIMPs (Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles), a theoretical notion that there are atomic-scale particles that interact with “normal” baryonic matter only via gravity. The problem with WIMPs is that, thus far, not a single one has been detected, despite years of searching for evidence that they exist via multiple, multi-billion-dollar detectors.

With the recent publication of a study of black hole populations in our galaxy (article paywalled, more layman-friendly press release at Phys.org) that indicates there may be as many as 100 million stellar-remnant-type black holes in the Milky Way alone, the question arises, “Is the number of primordial and stellar-remnant black holes in our Universe sufficient to account for the calculated mass of dark matter, without having to invoke WIMPs at all?”

I don’t personally have the mathematical knowledge to even begin to answer that question, but I’m curious to find out what the professional cosmologists here think of the idea.

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

Can Primordial Black Holes Alone Account For Dark Matter?

thomst writes: Slashdot stories have reported extensively on the LIGO experiments’ initial detection of gravity waves emanating from collisions of primordial black holes, beginning, on February 11, 2016, with the first (and most widely-reported) such d…

thomst writes: Slashdot stories have reported extensively on the LIGO experiments’ initial detection of gravity waves emanating from collisions of primordial black holes, beginning, on February 11, 2016, with the first (and most widely-reported) such detection. Other Slashdot articles have chronicled the second LIGO detection event and the third one. There’s even been a Slashdot report on the Synthetic Universe supercomputer model that provided support for the conclusion that the first detection event was, indeed, of a collision between two primordial black holes, rather than the more familiar stellar remnant kind that result from more recent supernovae of large-mass stars.

What interests me is the possibility that black holes of all kinds — and particularly primordial black holes — are so commonplace that they may be all that’s required to explain the effects of “dark matter.” Dark matter, which, according to current models, makes up some 26% of the mass of our Universe, has been firmly established as real, both by calculation of the gravity necessary to hold spiral galaxies like our own together, and by direct observation of gravitational lensing effects produced by the “empty” space between recently-collided galaxies. There’s no question that it exists. What is unknown, at this point, is what exactly it consists of.

The leading candidate has, for decades, been something called WIMPs (Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles), a theoretical notion that there are atomic-scale particles that interact with “normal” baryonic matter only via gravity. The problem with WIMPs is that, thus far, not a single one has been detected, despite years of searching for evidence that they exist via multiple, multi-billion-dollar detectors.

With the recent publication of a study of black hole populations in our galaxy (article paywalled, more layman-friendly press release at Phys.org) that indicates there may be as many as 100 million stellar-remnant-type black holes in the Milky Way alone, the question arises, “Is the number of primordial and stellar-remnant black holes in our Universe sufficient to account for the calculated mass of dark matter, without having to invoke WIMPs at all?”

I don’t personally have the mathematical knowledge to even begin to answer that question, but I’m curious to find out what the professional cosmologists here think of the idea.

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

SpaceX Releases Animation of Planned Falcon Heavy Launch

intellitech writes: SpaceX CEO Elon Musk recently shared a new (and, really freaking cool) animation demonstrating how the company plans to launch the maiden flight of their Falcon Heavy system later this year, which will be the most powerful rocket si…

intellitech writes: SpaceX CEO Elon Musk recently shared a new (and, really freaking cool) animation demonstrating how the company plans to launch the maiden flight of their Falcon Heavy system later this year, which will be the most powerful rocket since the Saturn V used for the moon landings during the Apollo-era. According to Elon Musk’s Instragram post, “FH is twice the thrust of the next largest rocket currently flying and ~2/3 thrust of the Saturn V moon rocket.” He also reiterates that there’s a “lot that can go wrong in the November launch.”

Direct link to the YouTube video.

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

National Solar Observatory Predicts Shape of Solar Corona For August Eclipse

bsharma shares a report from Phys.Org: August 21st will bring a history-making opportunity for the entire United States. On that day, every person in the country, including Hawaii and Alaska, will have an opportunity to witness at least a partial solar…

bsharma shares a report from Phys.Org: August 21st will bring a history-making opportunity for the entire United States. On that day, every person in the country, including Hawaii and Alaska, will have an opportunity to witness at least a partial solar eclipse as the moon moves in front of the Sun. If you have the good fortune to be along the path of totality, stretching from Oregon to South Carolina, you will get to witness one of the most awe-inspiring views in nature — the wispy wonders of the solar corona. But there is more to the corona than one might initially realize. Dr. Gordon Petrie from the National Solar Observatory (NSO) explains: “The corona might look like it’s a fuzzy halo around the Sun, but it actually has quite a lot of structure to it. The Sun has a magnetic field that, at first glance, might remind us of the middle-school experiment where you sprinkle iron filings over a bar magnet to get a butterfly shape. However, on closer inspection, it is far more complicated than that. Since we are exactly one solar rotation away from the solar eclipse, we’re able to use today’s observations to predict the structure of the corona on Aug. 21st,” says Petrie. “The corona is not likely to change too much between now and the eclipse, unless we get lucky and a large active region appears! We expect to see faint, straight structures protruding from the north and south poles of the Sun — these are the polar plumes. We will be able to see brighter bulbs of material closer to the equator — these are called helmet streamers.”

Read more of this story at Slashdot.

Luxembourg Just Passed A New Asteroid Mining Law

Remember when NASA visited an asteroid with $10 quintillion worth of minerals? Now the lucrative asteroid-mining industry is being pursued by “the European banking hub with a population not much bigger than Albuquerque’s,” reports Bloomberg, as low-cos…

Remember when NASA visited an asteroid with $10 quintillion worth of minerals? Now the lucrative asteroid-mining industry is being pursued by “the European banking hub with a population not much bigger than Albuquerque’s,” reports Bloomberg, as low-cost reconnaissance missions are already looking “increasingly feasible.” An anonymous reader writes:

Last week Luxembourg’s parliament unanimously passed an asteroid mining law (which goes into effect Tuesday) “that gives companies ownership of what they extract from the celestial bodies…” according to Engadget. “Luxembourg’s law is pretty similar to the one President Obama signed back in 2015 in that it gives mining companies the right to keep their loot. Both of them also take advantage of a loophole in the UN’s Outer Space Treaty, which states that nations can’t claim and occupy the moon and other celestial bodies. They don’t give companies ownership of asteroids, after all, only the minerals they extract.. Unlike the U.S. version, though, a company’s major stakeholders don’t need to be based in Luxembourg to enjoy its protection — they only need to have an office in country.”

Bloomberg reports that the law “could serve as a model for other small countries hoping to explore asteroids — and to get a piece of the booming space business,” since the tiny country is also offering to buy equity stakes in any companies which relocate to Luxembourg. “Luxembourg’s success in attracting these companies should show other small countries that space isn’t just for superpowers any more… Competition has made space achievable for many more companies, and for the countries that support them.”
For the last few years Luxembourg has begun quietly investing in asteroid mining, including a joint venture with “Deep Space Industries” to build a spacecraft to test asteroid-mining technologies — while another collaboration with Kleos Space is working on “in-space manufacturing technology.”

Read more of this story at Slashdot.